What is the GROW campaign about?
How will we manage to feed a world with 9 billion people in it?
Is Oxfam suggesting small-hold farmers can replace industrial farming?
Is Oxfam asking people to change their eating habits e.g. stop eating meat, eat less food?
What is Oxfam’s view on the use of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) in agriculture / GMO foods?
Is Oxfam advocating organic farming? If not, why not?
What is the role of food companies in the food system?
What does Oxfam want the private sector/food companies to do?
Currently, nearly 1 in 8 people regularly go hungry. This is unacceptable. Without urgent action these numbers will continue to rise – laying waste the lives of millions more people, undermining the economic growth of countries around the globe, and increasing global insecurity. The GROW campaign is about transforming our broken food system so that it works for everyone. It is also about ensuring that the system is fit for a future where natural resource constraints, environmental challenges such as climate change, and a growing population will make feeding the world even harder. We must get to grips with these challenges now if we are going to win the fight against hunger and put the world on course for a secure, hunger free and more prosperous future.
We say GROW because:
- We need to grow more food to meet the challenge of feeding nine billion by 2050. That means empowering small-scale producers to grow food without hurting the planet. Poor countries need to grow economically – and investing in small scale agriculture is the key to this. Governments need to provide secure access to land for smallholder farmers, and especially for women – who often face the biggest battle to call it their own.
- We need to let the planet grow back its natural resources, for example forests, atmospheric space, fish, fertile soil, animal life and biodiversity.
- We need to grow out of crisis and into cooperation by building a global food governance system to cope with food crises and food price volatility.
- We need to grow a global movement for change with people leading the transformation we need.
The majority of the population growth up until 2050 will be concentrated in the poorest and most food insecure countries, this presents a challenge in the fight against hunger. However, the most important thing isn’t the number of people on the planet; it is what and how much they consume. We are already at unsustainable levels of consumption with a population below 7 billion. We need to focus on establishing sustainable patterns of production and consumption. By tackling this we will place ourselves back within limits the planet can stand and create the space for future generations to produce and consume their fair share.
500 million small farms in developing countries already support almost two billion people, nearly one-third of humanity. Big industrial farms usually have higher yields, but this is explained by the fact that they have greater access to land, water, finance, new technologies and practices, investment and subsidies through public funds – not by their size. When all these factors of productivity are taken into account, small farms are often just as, if not more efficient.
At present, higher incomes and increasing urbanization leads people to eat less grains and more meat, dairy, fish, fruit, and vegetables. This ‘Western’ diet uses far more scarce resources: like land and water and produces more GHG emissions. And the amount of food wasted by consumers in industrialized countries is enormous – quite possibly as much 25 per cent. An unprecedented shift to more sustainable eating trends must take place in both industrialized and emerging economies. We are not advocating ‘vegetarianism’, but it is clear that the overall amount of red meat consumed in many rich countries, for instance, needs to be lower.
So far, GMOs have not delivered on earlier promises of yield growth and have not transformed the livelihoods of smallholder agriculture. The obsession of some to focus on ‘silver bullet solutions’ and technical quick fixes such as GMO, whilst attractive to agribusiness, ignores the broader and much more important problem of chronic under investment in, and pervasive marginalization of, smallholder agriculture by governments, international agencies and the private sector. This is not to say that GM will never deliver and has no role to play. However there are many other options which are proven to increase the productive capacity of smallholder agriculture which should be prioritized.
Organic is certainly part of the solution. Pressures on land, water, and ecosystems can be reduced through practices that boost yields, use soils and water more sensitively, and reduce their reliance on external inputs – such as organic techniques. These could also significantly reduce the carbon footprint of agriculture. However, investment in smallholder agriculture should be tailored to the particular contexts of the farmers. For example, chemical fertilizers may be appropriate in situations where organic fertilizers are scarce. Oxfam’s interventions on this are two-fold: we work with farmers to build up their soil organic matter to rehabilitate their soils while also helping them to access inorganic fertilizer to supply the rest of the nutrients their crops need. Ultimately, we work with farmers to shift towards the least external inputs possible while still increasing their productivity.
The private sector sets the rules of the global food system – often at the expense of poor producers. 300 to 500 companies – traders, processors, manufacturers, and retailers – control 70 per cent of the choices and decisions in the food system globally, including those concerning key resources such as land, water, seeds and technologies, and infrastructure. By setting the rules along the food chains they govern – for prices, costs, and standards – they determine where most costs fall and where most risks are borne. They extract much of the value along the chain, while costs and risks cascade down onto the weakest participants – generally the farmers and laborers at the bottom.
Oxfam believes the private sector can play a positive role in helping to overcome food insecurity, and make healthy returns from developing solutions to the challenges we face. This means creating trading relationships that return value to poor women and men through fair and stable pricing arrangements. These relationships must facilitate access to the necessary skills, credit, and infrastructure and ensure these standards of all participants in the chains they govern. It also means supporting government measures to tackle food insecurity. The GROW Behind the Brands campaign focuses on the world’s biggest food and beverage companies, assessing their performance against key standards, engaging their customers and encouraging a ‘race to the top’ to improve.