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Over the past few months, about 180,000 southerners have returned from the north of Sudan. Thousands more are still planning to come.
Many have returned home to help build the new nation. After decades of war, southern Sudan needs to be built almost from scratch, and there are enormous challenges. Most people still do not have access to clean water, sanitation, or adequate schools or healthcare.
Others are coming because of fear and uncertainty about what will happen to southerners in the north after the south secedes.
Many of the returnees have been living in very basic conditions, with no shelter, food or water for them on arrival. The influx has placed enormous strain on local communities, who were already struggling to find enough food, water and other necessities.
Oxfam's emergency response team -- with funding from the European Commission's Humanitarian Aid department, ECHO -- has been providing clean water, building latrines and running health campaigns to stop diseases spreading.
More about Oxfam's work in Sudan