Towards a Living Income for Cocoa Farmers in Ghana: Assessing companies' efforts to date

Publication date: 14 February 2023
Author: Gneiting, Uwe Arhin, Albert

This report analyzes existing strategies and interventions implemented by cocoa and chocolate companies operating in Ghana to raise the income of cocoa farmers in their supply chains. It has two main aims: first, to complement companies’ learning efforts by pulling together and distilling lessons and insights from across the sector; and second, to strengthen transparency and accountability around living incomes by bringing greater visibility to companies’ efforts and their impact on raising the incomes of farmers in their supply chains to date.

The report covers three main areas:

  1. Mapping of companies’ living income strategies;
  2. Assessment of farmer income conditions;
  3. Analysis of the effectiveness and impact of companies’ living income strategies.


The findings might not necessarily be new for individual companies that have been implementing sustainability programs in Ghana for many years. However, the lessons that companies have learned have rarely been shared with a wider audience. This research aims to make these lessons more visible across the sector and create a joint foundation of knowledge upon which to build future living income strategies.